The Marijuana Plant - A Botanical Description

(Organic) Marijuana is an annual, usually dioecious (female and male flowers develop on separate plants), more rarely monoecious, wind-pollinated herb. It can reach more than 5 meters (16 feet) in height in a 4 to 6 month growing season outdoors. It propagates from seed, grows vigorously in brightly lit environments with well drained soils, and has an abundant need for nutrients and water. 

In modern breeding and cultivation of recreational Marijuana, the preferred way to propagate is by cloning, using cuttings of a so-called ‘mother plant’. Contemporary Marijuana has increasingly become a high-tech crop, grown indoors under completely artificial conditions.

Shorter days induce the plant to start flowering. The female plant then produces several crowded clusters of individual flowers (flower tops); a large one at the top of the stem and many smaller ones on each branch. The female flowers are the source of a variety of chemical constituents, including cannabinoids and terpenes. Upon fertilization of the flowers, the plant shifts its metabolic energy towards the production of seeds, and away from the biosynthesis of cannabinoids and terpenes. For that reason, male plants are usually removed from indoor growing operations (‘sinsemilla’ type of cultivation)